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complaint definition antonym

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complaint definition antonym
definitions - Complaints report a problem complaint (n.)

1. informal terms for objecting "I have a gripe about the service here"

2. (criminal law) a pleading describing some wrong or offense "he was arrested on a charge of larceny"

3. (civil law) the first pleading of the plaintiff setting out the facts on which the claim for relief is based

4. an expression of grievance or resentment

5. (formerly) a loud cry (or repeated cries) of pain or rage or sorrow

6. an often persistent bodily disorder or disease; a cause for complaining

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Merriam Webster

Complaint Com*plaint" (kŏm*plānt") , n. [F. complainte . See Complain .] 1. Expression of grief, regret, pain, censure, or resentment; lamentation; murmuring; accusation; fault-finding.

I poured out my complaint before him. Ps. cxlii. 2.

Grievous complaints of you. Shak.

2. Cause or subject of complaint or murmuring.

The poverty of the clergy in England hath been the complaint of all who wish well to the church. Swift.

3. An ailment or disease of the body.

One in a complaint of his bowels. Arbuthnot.

4. (Law) A formal allegation or charge against a party made or presented to the appropriate court or officer, as for a wrong done or a crime committed (in the latter case, generally under oath); an information; accusation; the initial bill in proceedings in equity.

Syn. -- Lamentation; murmuring; sorrow; grief; disease; illness; disorder; malady; ailment.

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definition (more) definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Complaints report a problem complaint (n.)

accusation , ailment , argument , bitch , charge , condition , criticism , disorder , fuss , grievance , grouch , ill , illness , impeachment , imputation , incrimination , indictment , indisposition , infirmity , kick , malady , objection , sickness , squawk , suggestion , trouble , beef  (colloquial) , gripe  (colloquial)

see also - Complaints

complaint (n.)

↗ complain about , complain of , complain to

phrases Person with feared complaint in whom no diagnosis is made  • complaint of old age  • complaint to the Commission  • file a complaint  • file a complaint against  • gastric complaint  • geriatric complaint  • heart complaint  • lodge a complaint  • lodge a complaint against  • lodge a complaint with  • make a complaint with  • old people's complaint  • old person's complaint  • person with feared complaint in whom no diagnosis is made  • stomach complaint

complaint to the Commission

Airline complaints  • Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa  • Commission for Public Complaints Against the RCMP  • Complaints Against Police Office  • Complaints Choir  • Complaints and Grievances  • Complaints of a Dutiful Daughter  • Complaints to the International Criminal Court  • Human rights complaints against Maclean's magazine  • Independent Complaints Directorate  • Independent Police Complaints Commission  • Independent Police Complaints Council  • Legal Complaints Service  • Legal Services Complaints Commissioner  • Military Police Complaints Commission  • National Board for Consumer Complaints (Sweden)  • Oklahoma Council on Judicial Complaints  • Police Complaints Authority  • Police Complaints Authority (United Kingdom)  • Police Complaints Board  • Police Complaints Commission  • Press Complaints Commission  • Superannuation Complaints Tribunal  • The Complaints

A Lover's Complaint  • A Lovers Complaint  • Automatic Complaint-Letter Generator  • Chief complaint  • Civilian Complaint Review Board  • Complaint Handling Process  • Complaint rock  • Complaint systems  • Consumer complaint  • Formal complaint  • Internet Crime Complaint Center  • Lindner Ethics Complaint of the 83rd Minnesota Legislative Session  • Lover's Complaint  • Lovers Complaint  • Online Complaint Management System  • Portnoy's Complaint  • Portnoy's Complaint (film)  • Super-complaint  • The Complaint of Roderick Mors  • The Complaint of the Poor Commons of Kent  • The West Country Damosel's Complaint  • The West-Country Damosel's Complaint

analogical dictionary  

censure; deprecation; disapprobation; disapproval [Classe]

propos, ce qu'on dit (paroles ou écrits) (fr) [Classe]

ravishment; rape [Classe]

application; inquiry; request; demand [Classe]

réclamer, protester (fr) [Classe]

se plaindre (fr) [Classe]

être mécontent (fr) [Classe]

parler avec mauvaise humeur (fr) [Classe]

se plaindre à voix basse (fr) [Classe]

faire des commérages (fr) [Classe]

nuire en paroles (à qqn) (fr) [Classe]

scold; shout; call; cry; scream; yell; cry out; scream out; yell out; shout out; roar; roar out; howl out; screech out; let fly at; heckle [Classe]

déplaisant (fr) [Classe]

incisif (esprit ou propos) (fr) [Classe]

qui offense (fr) [Classe]

procédure pénale (fr) [Thème]

(sermonizer; moraliser; moralizer; preacher; preacher man; sermoniser), (reproach), (blameless; inculpable; irreproachable; unimpeachable) [Thème]

(additional demand) [Thème]

procédure judiciaire (fr) [DomaineCollocation]

factotum [Domaine]

ExpressingDisapproval [Domaine]

Communication [Domaine]

speech act - complain, kick, kvetch, plain, quetch, sound off [Hyper.]

complaint - beef, bitch, complaint, gripe, grouch, kick, squawk - bellyacher, complainer, crybaby, griper, grumbler, moaner, nagger, sniveller, sorehead, squawker, whiner - bitchery - backbiter, defamer, libeler, maligner, slanderer, traducer, vilifier - crab, crabby person [Dérivé]

comment, gossip, piece of gossip, scuttlebutt, tale [GenV+comp]

aggrieve, bruise, hurt, injure, offend, spite, wound [Qui~]

malicious [Similaire]

cheer, cheer up, chirk up [Ant.]

phase de la procédure pénale (fr) [ClasseParExt.]

reproach [Classe]

additional demand [Classe]

beef, complain about, complain of, complain to, gripe, grouse, harp on, moan [Nominalisation]

objection [Hyper.]

complain, kick, kvetch, plain, quetch, sound off - backbite, gossip about - beef, bellyache, crab, gripe, grouse, holler, huff, squawk - bitchy, cattish, catty, grievous, hurtful, spiteful, vicious, wounding [Dérivé]

complaint (n.) ↕

 

defence; defense [Classe]

accusation [Classe]

droit public (fr) [Classe]

droit pénal (fr) [termes liés]

(punishment; castigation; chastisement), (denunciation; conviction; judgment of conviction; condemnation; sentence), (condemned man; convict) [termes liés]

law [Domaine]

Law [Domaine]

statement - charge - accuse, criminate, impeach, incriminate - act, certificate, deed, instrument, juridical act, legal act, legal document, legal instrument, legal transaction, official document, official paper, record - appearance, arraignment - legal code [Hyper.]

advocate, argue, plead [CeQui~]

plead - charge, complaint - accusation, charge - accusal, accusation - accuser - accusative, accusatory, accusing, accusive - complaint - accuser, complainant, plaintiff - binder, file, file cabinet, filing cabinet, ring binder - data file, file - lodgement, lodgment - filer - indict [Dérivé]

jurisprudence, law, legislation [Domaine]

law [Domaine]

Stating [Domaine]

plea, pleading [Hyper.]

accuse, charge - complain - file, lodge [Dérivé]

bill of indictment, indictment [Desc]

criminal law [Domaine]

complaint (n.) ↕

 

defence; defense [Classe]

statement - charge [Hyper.]

advocate, argue, plead [CeQui~]

plead - charge, complaint - complaint - accuser, complainant, plaintiff [Dérivé]

jurisprudence, law, legislation [Domaine]

international law, law of nations [Ant.]

plea, pleading [Hyper.]

complain [Dérivé]

civil law [Domaine]

complaint (n.) ↕

 

factotum [Domaine]

ExpressingDisapproval [Domaine]

speech act [Hyper.]

complaint - beef, bitch, complaint, gripe, grouch, kick, squawk - bellyacher, complainer, crybaby, griper, grumbler, moaner, nagger, sniveller, sorehead, squawker, whiner [Dérivé]

cheer, cheer up, chirk up [Ant.]

factotum [Domaine]

Expressing [Domaine]

objection [Hyper.]

complain, kick, kvetch, plain, quetch, sound off [Dérivé]

complaint (n.) ↕

 

utterance, vocalization [Hyper.]

call, cry, holler, hollo, scream, shout, shout out, squall, yell [Dérivé]

cry, yell [Hyper.]

complaint (n.) ↕

 

chose défavorable (fr) [ClasseParExt...]

objet de connaître (ressentir) (fr) [ClasseParExt.]

muck-up; problem; mess; muddle; tangle [Classe]

être malade (fr) [Classe]

(pain; hurting; distress; misery; suffering; ache), (suffering), (analgesia) [Thème]

(disease; spell of sickness; illness; unwellness; malady; condition; disorder), (pathogen) [Thème]

circumstances, position, situation, state of affairs - physical condition, physiological condition, physiological state - get hurt, hurt - ache, be in pain, hurt, suffer [Hyper.]

dérégler (fr) [Nominalisation]

déréglé (fr) [Propriété~]

algia, dolor, pain, painful sensation, pain sensation - trouble - ailment, complaint, ill, sickness, trouble - ache, distress, hurting, misery, pain, suffering [Dérivé]

pain; hurting; distress; misery; suffering; ache [Classe]

disease; spell of sickness; illness; unwellness; malady; condition; disorder [Classe]

objet de connaître, subir (fr) [ClasseParExt.]

medicine [Domaine]

DiseaseOrSyndrome [Domaine]

disorder, upset [Hyper.]

ail, pain, trouble - be ailing, be sickly [Dérivé]

complaint (n.) ↕

Wikipedia - see also

Complaint Wikipedia

Complaint                     This article is about the legal usage. For complaints in other contexts, see complaint (disambiguation). Civil procedure in the United States Federal Rules of Civil Procedure Doctrines of civil procedure Jurisdiction Subject-matter jurisdiction Diversity jurisdiction Personal jurisdiction Removal jurisdiction Venue Change of venue Forum non conveniens Pleadings Service of process Complaint Cause of action Case Information Statement Class action Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 Demurrer Answer Affirmative defense Reply Counterclaim Crossclaim Joinder Indispensable party Impleader Interpleader Intervention Other Motions Pre-trial procedure Discovery Initial Conference Interrogatories Depositions Request for Admissions Request for production Resolution without trial Default judgment Summary judgment Voluntary dismissal Involuntary dismissal Settlement Trial Parties Plaintiff Defendant Pro Se Jury Voir dire Burden of proof Judgment Judgment as a matter of law (JMOL) Renewed JMOL (JNOV) Motion to set aside judgment New trial Remedy Injunction Damages Attorney's fees American rule English rule Declaratory judgment Appeal Mandamus Certiorari This box:      

In legal terminology, a complaint is any formal legal document that sets out the facts and legal reasons (see: cause of action) that the filing party or parties (the plaintiff(s)) believes are sufficient to support a claim against the party or parties against whom the claim is brought (the defendant(s)) that entitles the plaintiff(s) to a remedy (either money damages or injunctive relief)]). For example, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) that govern civil litigation in United States courts provide that a civil action is commenced with the filing or service of a pleading called a complaint. Civil court rules in states that have incorporated the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure use the same term for the same pleading.

In some jurisdictions, specific types of criminal cases may also be commenced by the filing of a complaint, also sometimes called a criminal complaint or felony complaint. All criminal cases are prosecuted in the name of the governmental authority that promulgates criminal statutes and enforces the police power of the state with the goal of seeking criminal sanctions, such as the State (also sometimes called the People) or Crown (in Commonwealth realms). In the United States, the complaint is often associated with misdemeanor criminal charges presented by the prosecutor without the grand jury process. In most U.S. jurisdictions, the charging instrument presented to and authorized by a grand jury is referred to as an indictment.

Contents 1 United States 1.1 Filing and privacy 1.2 Attorney fees 2 Australia and United Kingdom 3 See also 4 External links 5 References   United States

Virtually every U.S. state has some forms available on web for most common complaints for lawyers and self-representing litigants; if a petitioner cannot find an appropriate form in his state, he often can modify a form from another state to fit his request. Several United States federal courts published general guidelines for the petitioners and Civil Rights complaint forms. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ]

Complaint generally has following structure elements: [ 2 ]

Caption and Heading - lists name, address and telephone number of the filing attorney at the top of the complaint. The casecaption usually also indicates the court in which the case originates, names of the parties and brief description of the document. Jurisdiction and venue - this section describes why the case should be heard in the selected court rather than some other court or forum. Parties - identifies plaintiffs and defendants. Statement of facts - lists facts that brought the case to the court. Cause of Action - a numbered list of legal allegations (called "counts"), with specific details about application of the governing law to the each count. In this section plaintiff usually cites existing Law, previous decisions of current court, cases from other courts, as an analogy to resolve similar questions of law. Injury - plaintiff explains to the judge how the actions of the defendants harmed his rights. Demand for relief - describes the relief that plaintiff is seeking as a result of the lawsuit. The relief can include request for declaratory judgment, request for injunctive relief (non-monetary relief), compensatory and actual damages (such as monetary relief), punitive damages (non-compensatory), and other relief.

After the complaint has been filed with the court, it has to be properly served to the opposite parties, but usually petitioners are not allowed to serve the complaint personally. [ 5 ] Court also can issue summons - official summary document which plaintiff needs serve together with the complaint. The defendants have limited time to respond, depending on the State or Federal rules. A defendant's failure to answer to a complaint can result in a default judgment in favor of the petitioner.

For example, in United States federal courts, any person who is at least 18 years old and not a party may serve a summons and complaint in a civil case. [ 5 ] The defendant must submit an answer within 21 days after being served with the summons and complaint, or request a waiver, according to FRCP Rule 12. [ 6 ] After the civil complaint was served to the defendants, plaintiff must as soon as practicable initiate a conference between the parties to plan for the rest of the discovery process. [ 7 ]

In many U.S. jurisdictions, a complaint submitted to a court must be accompanied by a Case Information Statement, which sets forth specific key information about the case and the lawyers representing the parties. This allows the judge to make determinations about which deadlines to set for different phases of the case, as it moves through the court system.

There are also freely accessible web search engines to assist parties in finding court decisions that can be cited in the complaint as an example or analogy to resolve similar questions of law. [ 8 ] Google Scholar is the biggest database of full text state and federal courts decisions that can be accessed without charge. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] These web search engines often allow one to select specific state courts to search. [ 8 ]

Federal courts created the Public Access to Court Electronic Records (PACER) system to obtain case and docket information from the United States district courts, United States courts of appeals, and United States bankruptcy courts. [ 10 ] The system is managed by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts; it allows lawyers and self-represented clients to obtain documents entered in the case much faster than regular mail. [ 10 ]

  Filing and privacy   Example page from Complaint in Anderson v. Cryovac landmark case. [ 11 ]

In addition to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, many of the U.S. district courts have developed their own requirements included in Local Rules for filing with the Court. [ 12 ] Local Rules can set up a limit on the number of pages, establish deadlines for motions and responses, explain whether it is acceptable to combine motion petition with a response, specify if a judge needs an additional copy of the documents (called "judge’s copy"), etc. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Local Rules can define page layout elements like: margins, text font/size, distance between lines, mandatory footer text, page numbering, and provide directions on how the pages need to be bind together – i.e. acceptable fasteners, number and location of fastening holes, etc. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] If the filed motion does not comply with the Local Rules then the judge can choose to strike the motion completely, or order the party to re-file its motion, or grant a special exception to the Local Rules.

According to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) 5.2, sensitive text like Social Security number, Taxpayer Identification Number, birthday, bank accounts and children’s names, should be redacted off the filings made with the court and accompanying exhibits, [ 16 ] (however, exhibits normally does not need to be attached to the original complaint, but should be presented to Court after the discovery). The redacted text can be erased with black-out or white-out, and the page should have an indication that it was redacted - most often by stamping word "redacted" on the bottom. Alternately, the filing party may ask the court’s permission to file some exhibits completely under seal. A minor's name of the petitions should be replaced with initials. [ 16 ]

A person making a redacted filing can file an unredacted copy under seal, or the Court can choose to order later that an additional filing be made under seal without redaction. [ 16 ] Copies of both redacted and unredacted documents filed with court should be provided to the other parties in the case. Some courts also require that additional electronic courtesy copy be emailed to the other parties. [ 15 ]

  Attorney fees

Before filing the complaint, it is important for plaintiffs to remember that Federal courts can impose liability for the prevailing party's attorney fees to the losing party, if the judge considers the case frivolous or for purpose of harassment, even when the case was voluntarily dismissed. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] In the case of Fox v. Vice, U.S. Supreme Court held that reasonable attorneys' fees could be awarded to the defendant under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 1988, but only for costs that the defendant would not have incurred "but for the frivolous claims." [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Even when there is no actual trial or judgment, if there is only pre-trial motion practice such as motions to dismiss, attorney fee shifting still can be awarded under FRCP Rule 11 when the opposing party files a Motion for Sanctions and the court issue an order identifying the sanctioned conduct and the basis for the sanction. [ 21 ] The losing party has a right to appeal any order for sanctions in the higher court. [ 22 ] In the state courts, however, each party is generally responsible only for its own attorney fees, with certain exceptions. [ 18 ]

  Australia and United Kingdom

In some countries, (for example Australia [ 23 ] and the UK [ 24 ] and many countries of the European Community), the making of consumer complaints, particularly regarding the sale of financial services, is governed by statute. The statutory authority may require companies to reply to complaints within set time limits, publish written procedures for handling customer dissatisfaction and provide information about arbitration schemes.

  See also Cause of action Online Complaint Management System Petition Pleading Service of process   External links Example of a Complaint Second Amended Complaint in Anderson v. Cryovac landmark case   References ^ "Pro Se Litigant Guide - Utah" . http://www.utd.uscourts.gov/forms/prose_guide.pdf .   ^ a b "Civil Rights Complaint Guide - Utah" . http://www.utd.uscourts.gov/forms/civilrt_guide.pdf .   ^ "Pro Se Guide - SC" . http://www.scd.uscourts.gov/docs/prose.pdf .   ^ "US District Court of Idaho - PRO SE HANDBOOK" . http://www.id.uscourts.gov/pro-se.htm .   ^ a b "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure - Rule 4" . http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/Rule4_1.htm .   ^ "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure" . http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/Rule12.htm .   ^ "FRCP Rule 26" . http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/Rule26.htm .   ^ a b c "Google Scholar" . http://scholar.google.com/advanced_scholar_search .   ^ "An Examination of Citation Counts in a New Scholarly Communication Environment" . http://dlib.org/dlib/september05/bauer/09bauer.html .   ^ a b "PACER" . http://www.pacer.gov/ .   ^ "Complaint in Anderson v. Cryovac landmark case." . http://serc.carleton.edu/woburn/resources/trial_documents.html .   ^ "LOCAL COURT RULES" . http://www.uscourts.gov/RulesAndPolicies/FederalRulemaking/LocalCourtRules.aspx .   ^ a b "Local Rules of U.S. District Court, District of Indiana" . http://www.insd.uscourts.gov/publications/localrules.pdf .   ^ a b "Local Rules of U.S. District Court, District of Oklahoma" . http://www.oknd.uscourts.gov/legal/generalo.nsf/0A0713F3B13A3660862570360013F310/$file/civil%20local%20rules.pdf .   ^ a b "Local Rules of U.S. District Court, District of Oregon" . http://ord.uscourts.gov/local-rules-of-civil-procedure/lr-10-form-of-pleadings-and-other-documents .   ^ a b c "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure" . http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/Rule5_2.htm .   ^ "FRCP Rule 54. Judgment; Costs" . http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/rule_54 .   ^ a b CRS. "Awards of Attorneys’ Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies" . http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/94-970.pdf .   ^ "Fox v. Vice, #10-144, 2011 U.S. Lexis 4182" . http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=4612481658703000905&hl=en&as_sdt=2&as_vis=1&oi=scholarr .   ^ "Attorneys’ Fees in Federal Civil Rights Lawsuits" . http://www.aele.org/law/2011all05/2011-05MLJ101.pdf .   ^ "FRCP Rule 11" . http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/frcp/rule_11 .   ^ "Pro Se Guide - South Carolina" . http://www.scd.uscourts.gov/docs/prose.pdf .   ^ "Australian Approved Complaint Services" . http://www.fido.gov.au/fido/fido.nsf/byheadline/Financial+services+complaints+schemes?openDocument .   ^ "Financial Ombudsman - UK" . http://www.financial-ombudsman.org.uk/alia .   Look up complaint in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Complaints Look up complaint in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.        

Readjourn - definition/Adjourn - antonym Discussion in ' English Only ' started by debfrance , Aug 31, 2008 .

Previous Thread Next Thread Loading... debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA Okay, I may seem a bit specious on this one, but it's taken up a lot of time looking for a correct answer, and I don't want to let go without a defining answer. I'm turning to you, brothers in arms, for help. I cannot find either a definition other than one incorrect definition, of readjourn , nor the antonym of adjourn. I was trying to express the idea that "school adjourned in July and will readjourn (using another word) in September". I've come up with reconvene on my own, but I'm perplexed at either the misinformation (answers.com: readjourn - to adjourn again) , or no available information. In this case, re- is not signifying repeating an action, but transforms adjourn to readjourn, creating an antonym. I may be way off on this all and I'm now second-guessing myself. Anyway, thanks for any enlightenment.   Last edited: Aug 31, 2008 debfrance , Aug 31, 2008 #1 Loob Senior Member English UK Hello debfrance, and welcome to the forums! I think you're on an impossible mission.... To the best of my knowledge, readjourn has only one meaning - to adjourn again   Loob , Aug 31, 2008 #2 kitenok Senior Member Tallahassee, Florida, US English - US Hi debfrance, I agree with Loob, and will add that "readjourn" is rare and used only as the iterative of "adjourn" in the (archaic?) sense of "postpone." So: "we adjourned this business until June and then decided to readjourn it until August." All examples of readjourn in the OED are in this sense, and none of them are from after 1678. For your sentence, why not simply: "School ended in July and will begin again in September."   kitenok , Aug 31, 2008 #3 debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA Thanks kitenok and loob, for taking an interest. I teach conversational Business English in France, and occasionally there are obscure questions that arise. I have to be tenacious and thorough in my search for correct and helpful answers and explanations. I googled (wonderful new verb...) "the meeting readjourned" and came up with many examples of it being used as to "re-open", rather than to adjourn again. Perhaps this is within the realm of a black hole of the English language, but I'm not yet ready to let it go at that. As for my original sentence, I used "school will reconvene in September". Thanks again for the input.   debfrance , Sep 1, 2008 #4 GreenWhiteBlue Senior Member The City of New York USA - English The words you want are "reopen" or "reconvene". I also find the term "adjourn" an odd one to use to describe what a school does at the end of a term.   GreenWhiteBlue , Sep 1, 2008 #5 debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA Thanks again. I didn't mean for the emphasis to be on "school", but on the meanings of adjourn/readjourn . I find it interesting/odd the the use of the prefix re- does not signify repetition of the original word (adjourn), but signifies a sequential extension of the action. I forewarned you with my speciousness... These two words are used frequently, particularly regarding business and professional meetings, court proceedings, etc. Only one of the dictionary references I found defined readjourn , and as a secondary definition, to summon again.   debfrance , Sep 1, 2008 #6 Cagey post mod (English Only / Latin) California English - US debfrance said: ↑ I find it interesting/odd the the use of the prefix re- does not signify repetition of the original word (adjourn), but signifies a sequential extension of the action. Click to expand... I am not sure I understand you. Speaking roughly, " adjourn " means to assign something to another day, and " re-adjourn " (usually) means to assign again to a second time. That is, in its usual meaning "readjourn" is iterative.   Cagey , Sep 1, 2008 #7 cycloneviv Senior Member Perth, Western Australia English - Australia debfrance said: ↑ I googled (wonderful new verb...) "the meeting readjourned" and came up with many examples of it being used as to "re-open", rather than to adjourn again. Click to expand... Can you give us details of the Google results you found? My search for "the meeting readjourned" results in only 88 pages, which, given the size of the internet, seems an extremely insignificant number, especially in the face of 952,000 results for "the meeting adjourned". In fact, even viewing repeat pages, on scrolling through the results you only find 66 results, or 16 without duplicates. A veritable drop in the ocean! I am in agreement with those who have replied already and do not understand "readjourned" to mean anything other than "adjourned again". I don't find it terribly surprising that 88 people (or rather, without duplicate results, 16 people) would use readjourn in an incorrect manner, to mean "reconvened", even though many of them were official looking documents, for example on the internet sites of local government bodies.   Last edited: Sep 1, 2008 cycloneviv , Sep 1, 2008 #8 debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA As an example: the meeting readjourned the following morning , meaning it began again, after it's suspension. In usage, I don't think it means to suspend again. Thanks for the continued input.   debfrance , Sep 1, 2008 #9 Orange Blossom Senior Member U.S.A. English From the definitions I've seen, 'readjourn' does not mean "reconvene" but to adjourn again. http://www.webster-dictionary.net/definition/Readjourn http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/Re/Readjourn.html http://www.webster-dictionary.org/definition/Readjourn Of course, these are all Webster dictionary variations. Edited to add: I did just now see one other entry that did state the meaning of "summon" again for readjourn, but that the meaning is not used. http://1828.sorabji.com/1828/words/r/readjourn.html Orange Blossom   Orange Blossom , Sep 1, 2008 #10 Nunty Modified Jerusalem Hebrew-US English (bilingual) Welcome to the forums, debfrance. I think you were wise to go with "reconvene". I don't know what you mean by a "sequential extension of the action". The action is repeated, not extended, as far as I can see. In general the prefix "re" indicates a repetition, doesn't it?   Nunty , Sep 1, 2008 #11 elroy Motley mod Chicago, IL US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual The verb I am familiar with in this context is resume . Uncle Google suggests that it is more common than the others suggested: "school will resume" - 23,200 results "school will reopen" - 10,900 results "school will reconvene" - 224 results And just for kicks... "school will readjourn" - 1 result   elroy , Sep 1, 2008 #12 debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA Because I've started this, I feel I must continue to follow-up on it rather than give up (even though I really should be getting on with my work at hand...). I do appreciate the forums of , which I've followed over the years. This is my first participation. Hello Nun-Translator: Sorry about the "sequential extension of the action" in relation to readjourn . I was trying to be too succinct in explaining that readjourn is the follow-up action to adjourn (to suspend, usually temporarily), and not a repetition of it (it doesn't actually mean to suspend again, but to open again). The prefix re- does indicate repetition, but somehow, not in this case. That's exactly what's piqued my curiosity! For example, when a court (as cited in a Google reference to a U.S. Supreme Court Hearing of Florida official document) readjourns, it signifies the follow-up opening to the previous suspension/adjournment of that particular hearing. As for reconvene , that implies that there was some sort of closure, as does readjourn imply a closure (adjournment). But whereas reconvene means to convene again, readjourn does not mean to adjourn (suspend) again, but to re-open. Ouch, this is hurting my head... Hello CycloneViv: Yes, readjourn is an obscure word, but obscure doesn't mean it's not valid. I won't bother with using it again as I prefer using words that easily promote communication and understanding of meaning, and that I can back up if a student should question it. I tried to include those reference details found on Google, but each time I lost my original text here and have had to start from scratch three times, so I gave up... Sorry not to be more complete, but I think if anyone wishes to go further, they can research it themselves. This question of the meaning of readjourn came up, and knowing that it does not mean "to adjourn again", I brought it to question. I'll refer this to to the Oxford Dictionary Experts, who can be contacted, by snail mail, with just such questions. Can't figure out where to go for a definitive answer. I've really appreciated the input of everyone here. Vive la langue anglaise!   debfrance , Sep 1, 2008 #13 panjandrum Occasional Moderator Belfast, Ireland English-Ireland (top end) It is possible that some of the apparent confusion arises because to adjourn a meeting there has to be a meeting To adjourn (a meeting): To put off or defer its further proceedings to another day; to discontinue or dissolve it, in order to reconstitute it at another time or place. OED Click to expand... Therefore, and strictly speaking, to readjourn a meeting the meeting must have already reconvened. A sequence such as: First attempt to hold the meeting - adjourned. Reconvened meeting - readjourned. Reconvened meeting - business concluded. I suggest that the 16 instances of "the meeting readjourned" can safely be ignored as eccentric usage - or error. debfrance said: ↑ [...] For example, when a court (as cited in a Google reference to a U.S. Supreme Court Hearing of Florida official document) readjourns, it signifies the follow-up opening to the previous suspension/adjournment of that particular hearing. [...] Click to expand... Could you give us the source? I can't find this one. There are some examples that may be causing confusion. For example a meeting may have two distinct purposes - EXAMPLE . This meeting first adjourned when it suspended its regular session to begin an executive session. The meeting later readjourned when it terminated the executive session to continue its regular session. This is a somewhat eccentric use of adjourn, but it is clear that in each case the meeting is stopping doing some kind of business (adjourning or readjourning) and that readjourning does not mean starting something.   Last edited: Sep 1, 2008 panjandrum , Sep 1, 2008 #14 cuchuflete Senior Member Maine, EEUU EEUU-inglés The seven law dictionaries I've just looked at do not contain the word 'readjourn'. That suggests to me that the term is either (1) not in widespread use by the legal profession, or (2) self-evident in meaning, not requiring a legal definition distinct from that to be found in a "civilian" dictionary, or (3) both of the foregoing. The verb and noun forms are both in the Webster's Unabridged, 1913 edition. Re`ad`journ´ment (rē`ăd`jûrn´m e nt) n.1.The act of readjourning; a second or repeated adjournment.Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by C. & G. Merriam Co. Click to expand... Googling the term "will readjourn" produced very few citations. The first few I read were obviously trying to say 'reconvene'. One is current, 2008, from a Californian congressman (Party affiliation withheld to protect something or other) who describes himself as "pro-energy". At least the linguistic precision is consistent in both examples. I'll try to find readjourn as used by a pro-lassitude legislator. source Another member of the U.S. Congress seems to like misusing the word, but the editors of The Congressional Quarterly labeled it with " (sic) " to show that they were unimpressed: Mr. Secretary, rather than interrupting you, we're going to recess to vote, and then we will readjourn (sic) to hear your statement. Click to expand... source   Last edited: Sep 1, 2008 cuchuflete , Sep 1, 2008 #15 panjandrum Occasional Moderator Belfast, Ireland English-Ireland (top end) debfrance said: ↑ I was trying to be too succinct in explaining that readjourn is the follow-up action to adjourn (to suspend, usually temporarily), and not a repetition of it (it doesn't actually mean to suspend again, but to open again) . [...] This question of the meaning of readjourn came up, and knowing that it does not mean "to adjourn again" , I brought it to question. I'll refer this to to the Oxford Dictionary Experts, who can be contacted, by snail mail, with just such questions. Can't figure out where to go for a definitive answer. [...] Click to expand... My added emphasis. I think you have the definitive answer, surely. There is no substantive evidence that readjourn is used with any meaning other than the logical meaning, to adjourn again. cuchuflete's quoted dictionary definitions support that, as does the Oxford English Dictionary ( To adjourn again ). There are some examples of readjourn being used where reconvene would be appropriate. There is no pattern to this use other than it appearing in the minutes of meetings - usually of small civic bodies. There are many more examples of readjourn being used in this context with the expected meaning.   panjandrum , Sep 1, 2008 #16 debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA Hello GreenWhiteBlue: My interest is really just with adjourn/readjourn, and I'm sorry to have inadvertently put the focus on their use in school proceedings as it was not a good example (although it did get me to thinking about usage...). Hello Panjandrum, Because I haven't made more than 30 posts on , the monitor will not allow me to post the URL references to cite my examples. That doesn't help us much... I only sited two, one from a US Supreme Court Hearing in Florida, and another from the minutes of a Board of Education meeting in Rohnert Park, California. Yes, I read your reference regarding executive session and regular session, which seems to be an example of it's exceptional/eccentric use. But the use of readjourn is used in other cases to indicate the reopening of and adjournment. I don't understand why you wrote "readjourning does not mean starting something" - that hasn't been part of the debate. If anything, it's been stated that to readjourn means to adjourn again (here we go again!). Adjourn signifies a suspensed closure in lieu of a final closure. Thanks for your input. My original intent in presenting this to the forum was, and still is, to clarify the gap between the practiced uses of "readjournment" and its dictionary definitions. My use of "school" in adjourning and readjourning was inappropriate as an example, and was not my point, but led to my original question of the difference between given definitions and usage (albeit obscure) of readjourn . I still don't understand how readjourn can be defined at to adjourn again, as it is not used to put something once again in suspension. I'm obviously not communicating correctly my intention, but I've appreciated all this input. Thank you all for giving this serious consideration.   debfrance , Sep 1, 2008 #17 panjandrum Occasional Moderator Belfast, Ireland English-Ireland (top end) debfrance said: ↑ [...] My original intent in presenting this to the forum was, and still is, to clarify the gap between the practiced uses of "readjournment" and its dictionary definitions. [...] Click to expand... Clearly there are some examples of readjourn being used contrary to logic and to the dictionary definitions. In the face of the evidence of use of readjourn that is entirely consistent with logic and with all the dictionary definitions, it is reasonable to put this down to misunderstanding on the part of the minute-writer. I still don't understand how readjourn can be defined at to adjourn again, as it is not used to put something once again in suspension. [...] Click to expand... This is very surprising considering the number of examples available where readjourn is used with precisely that meaning - sometimes in the sequence adjourned, reconvened, and readjourned - and in one notable example, adjourned, unadjourned, and readjourned Setting this all aside, it is clear that there are reputable organisations whose minutes include this anomaly. There is no pattern to it that would suggest a regular use of readjourn to mean reconvene in any particular context.   panjandrum , Sep 1, 2008 #18 cycloneviv Senior Member Perth, Western Australia English - Australia debfrance said: ↑ Hello CycloneViv: Yes, readjourn is an obscure word, but obscure doesn't mean it's not valid. I won't bother with using it again as I prefer using words that easily promote communication and understanding of meaning, and that I can back up if a student should question it. I tried to include those reference details found on Google, but each time I lost my original text here and have had to start from scratch three times, so I gave up... Sorry not to be more complete, but I think if anyone wishes to go further, they can research it themselves. Click to expand... Hi again debfrance, I didn't actually mean to imply at all that readjourn was obscure. To my mind, it is a completely understandable word, with the meaning that you found in your dictionaries: "to adjourn again". My Google search was an attempt to find the many examples of "the meeting readjourned" meaning "the meeting reconvened" that you said you had come across. While I understand that you cannot post the actual links, it might have been useful had you given us the number of results you found. As I said, I found only 16 individual examples of "the meeting readjourned" when I did my Google search, and it is entirely conceivable, indeed it is entirely probable, that each one of those examples, no matter how exhalted the author, is using readjourned incorrectly. Anyway, I do hope you find your answer soon.   cycloneviv , Sep 2, 2008 #19 debfrance Member southeastern France English - USA I thank you all for this learning experience - I am wiser for having consulted the oracle! Not that I have been using the cursed readjourn on a regular basis... I consulted two wisemen outside the forum (one, an advertising exec and the other Paul Brians, the author of a book on common errors of English language, and they both confirmed everything that's been written here by all of you. As an anecdote, according to Mr. Brians, readjourn has no place in his book Common Errors in English. How chastening. Again, I sincerely thank you all for having taken the time and maintaining patience with a word I really did not understand until now. The subject drove me to distraction all day long, by the way. -Deb B Biot, France   debfrance , Sep 2, 2008 #20 Previous Thread Next Thread Loading... (You must log in or sign up to reply here.) Show Ignored Content Share This Page Tweet Log in with Facebook Your name or email address: Do you already have an account? No, create an account now. Yes, my password is: Forgot your password? Stay logged in WordReference Forums Forums > English Only > English Only >


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